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A hint from history

Description:

Wilhelm II, Emperor of Germany, sits in a throne, sword across his lap, and reads by candlelight papers labeled "Plans for German colonization in South America." The ghost of Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico, looms above him as "a hint from history." On the floor are scattered papers labeled "South American mortgages" and "South American investments."

Resource Type: Cartoon

Subject: Imperialism; South America; Germany; William II, German Emperor, 1859-1941; Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico, 1832-1867

Date: 1900-06-27

Pan-American Puck

Description:

Columbia welcomes a woman labeled "South America" to the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.

Resource Type: Cartoon

Subject: Pan-American Exposition; Columbia (Symbolic character); Women's clothing; Salutations; New York (State)--Buffalo; South America

Date: 1901-05-08

Pan-America

Description:

Columbia and another woman, possibly representing South America, ride side-saddle on a buffalo to the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.

Resource Type: Cartoon

Subject: Pan-American Exposition; Columbia (Symbolic character); Women's clothing; American bison; New York (State)--Buffalo; South America

Date: 1901-05-08

Letter from Hermann Speck von Sternburg to Theodore Roosevelt

Description:

Hermann Speck von Sternburg thanks Theodore Roosevelt for his interesting letter, and is glad to hear that Roosevelt's family is doing so well. Sternburg believes that with regards to South America, the Monroe Doctrine was very beneficial in helping create peace, and wishes that some nation, or group of nations would establish a similar doctrine over China. He suggests that Roosevelt propose a Roosevelt doctrine when his time comes "in a few years," in conjunction with Japan in order to check other powers in China. Sternburg briefly comments on the continuation of the South African War, and the use of Indian troops in the British army, both in the South African war, as well as in any potential war in Europe. He remarks upon Gurkhas as being especially strong fighters, and discusses some of the situations in Nepal, Tibet, and Afghanistan, as well as an upcoming visit to the Maharajah of Jaipur. Sternburg also writes about the public reception of speeches by Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge, and discusses his recent return to Berlin from Washington when his term as diplomat to the United States finished, with a suggestion that any sort of strong pressure aiming towards his return to the United States would likely be met with good results.

Resource Type: Letter

Subject: South African War (1899-1902); Monroe doctrine; Gurkha soldiers; Buddhists; Muslims; Diplomatic and consular service; South America; China; Japan; England; Nepal; India; Europe; Asia; Afghanistan; Afghanistan--Kabul; India--Jaipur; Washington (D.C.); New York (State)--Buffalo; Russia; China--Tibet; Germany; Germany--Berlin; Kitchener, Horatio Herbert Kitchener, Earl, 1850-1916; Roosevelt, Theodore, 1887-1944; Chamberlain, Joseph, 1836-1914; Hay, John, 1838-1905; William II, German Emperor, 1859-1941

Date: 1901-09-01

Note on South American visitors

Description:

Assistant Secretary Adee presents South American visitors to President Roosevelt.

Resource Type: Note

Subject: Visitors, Foreign; Government etiquette; South America; Roosevelt, Theodore, 1858-1919; Adee, Alvey A. (Alvey Augustus), 1842-1924

Date: 1901-10-11

Letter from Theodore Roosevelt to Hermann Speck von Sternburg

Description:

President Roosevelt supports the Monroe Doctrine and wants South America to "develop on its own lines, with an open door to all outside nations." He wishes that the same policy could be applied to China. Roosevelt is saddened by England's military "decay" and wonders if the Franco-Russian alliance will be permanent.

Resource Type: Letter

Subject: Monroe doctrine; International relations; Geopolitics; Great powers--Foreign relations; Military readiness; South America; China; France; Germany; Great Britain; Russia

Date: 1901-10-11

Letter from W. E. Alger to Henry Cabot Lodge

Description:

Consul Alger claims that South and Central Americans fear the United States and American intentions towards their countries. However, relations could be improved if they are convinced that the United States only wants "friendship and commerce." Alger suggests that President Roosevelt state American intentions towards South and Central America in a message to Congress.

Resource Type: Letter

Subject: International relations; Speeches, addresses, etc.; South America; Central America; Roosevelt, Theodore, 1858-1919

Date: 1901-10-15

Memorandum of information for the Secretary of the Navy

Description:

Captain Sigsbee presents two translations of German newspaper articles received from consular agents in Germany. The first article discusses Germany's intent to promote immigration to South America and focuses on available economic opportunities for the German people. It claims that the United States ignored the Monroe doctrine by annexing Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippines. The second article states Germany should not try to establish itself in South America as it would not be able to maintain long term control.

Resource Type: Memorandum

Subject: German newspapers; Monroe doctrine; Emigration and immigration; Colonization; International relations; Germany; South America; Brazil; United States. Navy Department. Bureau of Navigation; United States. Department of State; United States. Consular Service

Date: 1901-10-25

Letter from Hiram S. Maxim to Theodore Roosevelt

Description:

Through his European contacts, Hiram S. Maxim has learned that many German officials supported an attack in the Philippines to prevent the United States from taking the islands. However, they feared that the British would intervene. The current feeling, also held by Emperor William II, is that Germany needs a larger fleet that will help expand German influence in South America. Austria-Hungary and France are also interested in limiting American influence in South America. Great Britain remains confident that the United States has control of the Western hemisphere and can foil any German plans.

Resource Type: Letter

Subject: International relations; Balance of power; Military policy; Maxim gun; Germany; Great Britain; Philippines; South America; Dewey, George, 1837-1917; William II, German Emperor, 1859-1941

Date: 1901-10-29

Telegram from Michael Henry Herbert to Henry Charles Keith Petty-FitzMaurice

Description:

Ambassador Herbert spoke with Secretary Hay regarding Lord Lansdowne's telegram. Hay stated that the United States would regret European powers using force in South or Central America. However, they could not object to a redress of grievances as long as no territory was acquired.

Resource Type: Telegram

Subject: Intervention (International law); Aggression (International law); International relations; Monroe doctrine; Great Britain; South America; Central America; Hay, John, 1838-1905

Date: 1901-11-13

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