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The anti-Chinese wall

Description:

Print shows Uncle Sam using "Congressional Mortar" and building blocks carried by ethnic workers to construct a wall with the stones. The stones are labeled "Law against Race, Prejudice, Jealousy, Competition, Fear, Anti Low Wages, Non-Reciprocity, [and] Congressional Blunders." Across a river, in the background, Chinese workers work with picks to dismantle the Great Wall, as China opens its doors to trading with the West.  Caption: The American wall goes up as the Chinese original goes down.

Resource Type: Cartoon

Subject: Uncle Sam (Symbolic character); Stone walls; Racism; Ethnicity; Foreign workers; China--Great Wall of China

Date: 1882-03-29

Social equality

Description:

"Social Equality" chapter from Terence Vincent Powderly's Thirty Years of Labor, 1859-1889. The chapter is wide ranging and deals with labor, race, and the Knights of Labor's activities.

Resource Type: Book

Subject: Labor; Race; Racism; Virginia--Richmond; Southern States; Knights of Labor

Date: 1890

Transcript of a statement from John Lowndes McLaurin

Description:

Senator McLaurin describes President Roosevelt's White House dinner with Booker T. Washington as a customary courtesy and not a breech of inter-racial boundaries and etiquette. A handwritten note by George B. Cortelyou says, "Not used. The President said he did not want anyone to make any explanation for him."

Resource Type: Transcript

Subject: Racism--Political aspects; Race relations; Presidents--Racial attitudes; Etiquette; White House (Washington, D.C.); Roosevelt, Theodore, 1858-1919; Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915

Date: 1901-10

Letter from Booker T. Washington to Theodore Roosevelt

Description:

Booker T. Washington will have the information on Alabama and Texas appointments within a few days. He is soon leaving for a trip through Mississippi and will summarize conditions in the state. Washington defends the character of the African Americans holding public office in Georgia and believes objections brought against them will be based on race.

Resource Type: Letter

Subject: Employees--Appointment, qualifications, tenure, etc.; African Americans--Politics and government; Racism; Alabama; Texas; Mississippi; Georgia

Date: 1901-10-01

Letter from Booker T. Washington to Theodore Roosevelt

Description:

Booker T. Washington has investigated the conditions in Georgia and concluded that attacks against African American office holders are based on race and not character or ability. Washington also provides advice on government appointments in Alabama.

Resource Type: Letter

Subject: Employees--Appointment, qualifications, tenure, etc.; African Americans--Politics and government; Racism; Race discrimination; Georgia; Alabama

Date: 1901-10-04

Letter from Richard Harding Davis to Theodore Roosevelt

Description:

Richard Harding Davis supports President Roosevelt's decision to host Booker T. Washington at the White House and describes the decision as an "act of every day civility." The South doesn't realize that the Civil War is over and that the slave question has been decided.

Resource Type: Letter

Subject: American Civil War (1861-1865); Dinners and dining; Etiquette; African Americans--Politics and government; African Americans--Civil rights; Racism; Race relations; Press and politics; Southern States; Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915

Date: 1901-10-17

Letter from Lucius Nathan Littauer to Theodore Roosevelt

Description:

Representative Littauer encloses a letter from Theodore F. Seward requesting a statement from President Roosevelt regarding Seward's appeal. Littauer thinks that the reactions of the Southern press to Roosevelt hosting Booker T. Washington at the White House have been outrageous.

Resource Type: Letter

Subject: Letters; Press and politics; Dinners and dining; Race relations; Racism; Southern States; Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915

Date: 1901-10-19

Letter from George Harrison Barbour to Theodore Roosevelt

Description:

George Harrison Barbour supports President Roosevelt and his decision to host Booker T. Washington at the White House. In the past several days, newspapers have printed much criticism of the president, "from southern persons especially." He claims that the general public supports Roosevelt. Barbour concludes by declaring that if a man is moral and a good citizen, the color of his skin should not matter. As long as Roosevelt continues to hold such a position, he will retain Barbour's full support.

Resource Type: Letter

Subject: Press and politics; African Americans--Public opinion; Presidents--Public opinion; Racism in the press; Racism--Public opinion; Dinners and dining; White House (Washington, D.C.); Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915

Date: 1901-10-21

Letter from Albion W. Tourgee to Theodore Roosevelt

Description:

Consul Tourgee commends President Roosevelt for hosting and dining with Booker T. Washington at the White House. He no longer believes Christianity and education can solve the problems of racism. Tourgee recounts an incident with Roosevelt in which Roosevelt stated he would never appoint an African American as a judge. He praises Roosevelt for his change of heart regarding African Americans.

Resource Type: Letter

Subject: Dinners and dining; Race relations; Race relations--Religious aspects--Christianity; Racism; African Americans--Civil rights; Judges--Selection and appointment; African American judges; France; Washington (D.C.); White House (Washington, D.C.); Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915

Date: 1901-10-21

Letter from Theodore Roosevelt to Joseph Bucklin Bishop

Description:

President Roosevelt is amused by the "Antis." He thanks Joseph Bucklin Bishop for what he said about the Booker T. Washington dinner. The reaction of many in the South left Roosevelt feeling very melancholy.

Resource Type: Letter

Subject: Dinners and dining; Racism; Race relations; Southern States; Washington, Booker T., 1856-1915

Date: 1901-10-21

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