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Letter from Hermann Speck von Sternburg to Theodore Roosevelt

Description:

Hermann Speck von Sternburg reports on the fighting between Japanese and Chinese forces in Manchuria. He finds the Chinese ill prepared both on land and sea to meet the Japanese offensive and believes the Japanese could approach Peking within two months. In the naval battle of Yalu, for instance, the Chinese had the wrong ammunition on their ships. Had they had the right ammunition, they ought to have won the battle and kept control of the sea.

Resource Type: Letter

Subject: Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895); Military readiness; Naval battles; China; Lodge, Henry Cabot, 1850-1924; Lodge, Anna Cabot Mills Davis, 1850-1915; Roosevelt, Edith Kermit Carow, 1861-1948; Roosevelt, Theodore, 1887-1944

Date: 1895-02-19

Easter in the old-world barnyard - a new chicken hatched

Description:

A group of "fighting roosters" labeled "Russia, Germany, France, Austria, Italy, [and] England" stand around a chick labeled "Japan" from a newly hatched egg labeled "Chinese Japanese War." The chick is crowing and standing on the Chinese flag. Caption: Chorus of Fighting Roosters--Well! Well! - who'd have thought it?

Resource Type: Cartoon

Subject: Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895); International relations; Roosters; Eggs

Date: 1895-04-17

Misery loves company

Description:

Three men holding spoons labeled "Russia, England, [and] Japan" attempt to force a large pill labeled "Ultimatum" from an "International Pill Box" into a despairing Chinese man sitting on a throne with a large pillow behind him. The three men have the attributes of Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia, Robert Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and Meiji, Emperor of Japan. The sultan of Turkey is sitting on the left, smoking a hookah. Caption: The Sultan--Allah be praised! - Now that they've got another "Sick Man," maybe they'll let up on me a little! 

Resource Type: Cartoon

Subject: International relations; Sultans; Commerce; Sick; China; Russia (Federation); Great Britain; Turkey; Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia, 1868-1918; Salisbury, Robert Cecil, Marquess of, 1830-1903; Meiji, Emperor of Japan, 1852-1912

Date: 1895-11-06

No chance to criticize

Description:

Uncle Sam, wearing a military uniform and holding a sword labeled "U.S.," sits at a table on which is a small cake on a platter labeled "Cuba," with a decanter labeled "Philippine Islands" on the table and a bottle labeled "Porto Rico" in an ice bucket. On the left, John Bull is holding a sword labeled "England," slicing a large cake on a platter labeled "China." Around the table, with him, are four figures representing "Russia" (Nicholas II), "France" (Felix Faure), "Germany" (William II), and "Japan" (Meiji), each using a sword to carve up the cake which is labeled "Wei-Hai-Wei, Coal Fields of Shan-Si, Ta-Lien-Wan, Port Arthur, Hainan, Kai Chau, [and] Formosa." Looking on from behind a wall on the far left are Italy (Umberto I) and Austria (Franz Joseph I). Caption: John Bull (to the Powers)--What are you mad about? We can't grudge him a light lunch while we are feasting!

Resource Type: Cartoon

Subject: Spanish-American War (1898); Uncle Sam (Symbolic character); John Bull (Symbolic character); Kings and rulers; Anger; International relations; Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia, 1868-1918; William II, German Emperor, 1859-1941; Meiji, Emperor of Japan, 1852-1912; Franz Joseph I, Emperor of Austria, 1830-1916; Umberto I, King of Italy, 1844-1900; Faure, Félix, 1841-1899

Date: 1898-05-25

The survival of the fittest

Description:

A scene is depicted of dueling grounds in a wooded area where a duel has taken place between a tattered buccaneer labeled "Spain" and "Medievalism" and Uncle Sam, who is holding a sword labeled "19th century Enlightenment." On the ground between them is a broken sword labeled "Misrule." Two figures, possibly acting as seconds, one labeled "Austria" (Franz Joseph I) and the other representing Germany (William II), are supporting "Spain" between them, and a man carrying a doctor's bag labeled "France" is rushing from behind to attend to the wounded man. John Bull and "Japan" (Meiji) are standing behind Uncle Sam. Caption: Uncle Sam--By Jingo! I'm sorry for the poor fellow; but he made me do it.

Resource Type: Cartoon

Subject: Spanish-American War (1898); Uncle Sam (Symbolic character); John Bull (Symbolic character); Kings and rulers; Dueling; International relations; Spain; William II, German Emperor, 1859-1941; Franz Joseph I, Emperor of Austria, 1830-1916; Meiji, Emperor of Japan, 1852-1912

Date: 1898-06-01

The next thing to do

Description:

Uncle Sam stands at the top of a wall labeled "Prohibitive Tariff" on land labeled "U.S." He looks across a body of water at the "Chinese Wall" being torn down by European and Japanese rulers labeled and caricatured as "France" (Felix Faure), "Germany" (William II), and "Japan" (Meiji), "England (George V), and "Russia" (Nicholas II). Caption: Uncle Sam - By Jingo! That reminds me that I've got a wall like that; - I'd better take it down, myself, before other people do it for me.

Resource Type: Cartoon

Subject: Uncle Sam (Symbolic character); Walls; Commerce; Tariff; Free trade; William II, German Emperor, 1859-1941; Meiji, Emperor of Japan, 1852-1912; George V, King of Great Britain, 1865-1936; Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia, 1868-1918; Faure, Félix, 1841-1899

Date: 1898-06-29

The tug of war in the far east

Description:

Print shows Uncle Sam with John Bull and Meiji, Emperor of Japan, standing beneath a flag labeled "Open Door Policy", in a tug of war contest for "Trade Supremacy" with "Russia" (Nicholas II), "Germany" (William II), and "France" (Felix Faure) who are being pulled through a gate labeled "Trade Restriction."

Resource Type: Cartoon

Subject: Uncle Sam (Symbolic character); John Bull (Symbolic character); Commerce; Tug of war (Game); Gates; Economic policy--U.S. states; International relations; Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia, 1868-1918; William II, German Emperor, 1859-1941; Meiji, Emperor of Japan, 1852-1912; Faure, Félix, 1841-1899

Date: 1898-09-14

A dangerous firecracker

Description:

The rulers of Germany, France, Austria, Japan, and John Bull, representing England, watch as the ruler of Russia lights the fuse of a large firecracker labeled "China."

Resource Type: Cartoon

Subject: John Bull (Symbolic character); International relations; Firecrackers; China; Franz Joseph I, Emperor of Austria, 1830-1916; Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia, 1868-1918; William II, German Emperor, 1859-1941; Meiji, Emperor of Japan, 1852-1912; Loubet, Emile, 1838-1929

Date: 1900-07-11

The Chinese kopje; -- not so easy as it looked from a distance

Description:

Uncle Sam and John Bull stand with six figures showing the attributes of the rulers of Russia (Nicholas II), Germany (William II), Japan (Meiji, Emperor of Japan), Italy (Umberto I), Austria (Franz Joseph I), and France (Emile Loubet), representing the eight nation alliance. They look up at a mountain labeled "Chinese Question" topped with the face of an angry Chinese person.

Resource Type: Cartoon

Subject: Boxer Rebellion (China : 1899-1901); Uncle Sam (Symbolic character); John Bull (Symbolic character); International relations; China; Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia, 1868-1918; William II, German Emperor, 1859-1941; Meiji, Emperor of Japan, 1852-1912; Franz Joseph I, Emperor of Austria, 1830-1916; Loubet, Emile, 1838-1929; Umberto I, King of Italy, 1844-1900

Date: 1900-07-25

Too many Shylocks

Description:

The emperors of Russia, Japan, and Germany, and the king of Great Britain each hold a balance scale, and all but "Japan" hold a paper that states their country's "claim for indemnity." They are confronting a kneeling, shocked Chinese man labeled "China." In the background, on the right, Puck is handing a cap and gown to Uncle Sam, suggesting that he play the role of "Portia" and outwit the "Shylocks." Caption: Puck (to Uncle Sam). -- That poor fellow needs a Portia. Why don't you take the part?

Resource Type: Cartoon

Subject: Boxer Rebellion (China : 1899-1901); Uncle Sam (Symbolic character); International relations; Kings and rulers; China; Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia, 1868-1918; Meiji, Emperor of Japan, 1852-1912; William II, German Emperor, 1859-1941; Edward VII, King of Great Britain, 1841-1910

Date: 1901-03-27

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