During Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency, the actions of ethnic, religious and racial minorities, as well as those of women, were circumscribed—sometimes by law, and sometimes by social convention. Great changes, however, were underway as the 20th Century began. This category highlights the conditions faced by Native Americans, Asian Americans, African Americans, women, immigrants, and religious minorities, and examines Roosevelt’s opinions and actions toward them.
The 1917 East St. Louis, Illinois, race riot was one of the deadliest race riots in American history. The riot’s official death toll was 39 African Americans and nine whites, although some estimates put the death toll as high as two hundred.
W. E. B. Du Bois was an influential African-American sociologist, writer, and leader during Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency and afterward.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is an important civil rights organization founded in the final months of Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency.
Booker T. Washington was a famous and highly respected leader among African Americans during Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency.